DNA AND SKIN
In the case of physical appearance, the influence of genetics in the aging process of the skin is increasingly known. Recent research has found that genetics contributes at least 60% to our “perceived age” (ie how old or young people view each other in relation to our actual age). Likewise, it has been discovered that about 1500 genes are involved in the aging process of the skin. These are genes responsible for providing moisture, texture, elasticity, antioxidant capacity and sun protection to the skin, etc.
Knowledge of the human genome, genomics and proteomics are allowing the realization of studies aimed at determining the points of our genome in which we are different to each other and the frequent differences in those points, and the mechanisms of regulation thereof.
The DNA sequences that constitute the fundamental, physical and functional unit of heredity are called genes. Each gene contains a part that is transcribed into RNA and another that is responsible for defining when and where they should be expressed. The information contained in genes (genetics) is used to generate RNA and proteins, which are the basic components of cells, the “bricks” that are used for the construction of cellular organelles or organelles, among other functions, such as Participate in processes of regeneration, protection, structure of the skin in the case of a GENOCOSMETIC vision.
Genes express proteins including those involved in most of the processes and structure of the skin: collagen, elastin, catalases, collagenases, metalloproteinases, proteoglycans, etc.
As an example, we can cite the following genes that influence our skin and our appearance:
1. One of the main factors in the aging process is hydration. The type of collagen we produce, and consequently, the structure and appearance of our skin. There are variations in the genes that produce collagen, as well as in the enzymes that restructure it (which are called collagenases and metalloproteinases). Small variations in these genes produce one type of collagen or another, for example, collagen more entangled and more resistant, or collagen more lax. People with genes that express more interlaced collagen will have less predisposition to wrinkles than people with more lax collagen.
2. Resistance to oxidation and free radicals. There are genetic variants that make more or less potent antioxidant enzymes. These enzymes are called catalases and superoxide-bismuthases. For example, a person with a catalase gene encoding a potent catalase will be more resistant to attacks by oxidant free radicals.
3. Different versions of the aquaporin genes. Aquaporins are channels that are in the cells and regulate their water level. Consequently, variations in aquaporins have consequences on the hydration of the skin. And the existence of more or less powerful versions of these channels has been demonstrated.
4. Genes involved in photoaging: similarly, gene versions have been recently discovered that offer the skin a greater resistance to aging caused by exposure to the sun. The mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood, but appears to be linked to inflammation. People with a certain variant of the gene would be more resistant to the ultraviolet rays of the sun, and their skin would age more slowly.